India is a federal and democratic republic where Constitution and the principles enshrined in it play an important role. India is a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic which is often called a union of states. The power of the government is controlled through executive, judiciary and the Parliament. It is the largest democracy of the world with Parliamentary system of government based on the British system of govt. where people elect the government through universal adult franchise.
People are given the right to vote any political party of his/her choice. India is the only country with not only the largest number of registered voters but the largest number of political parties. The political parties are involved in wooing the voters with their campaigns. Elections are held in India normally after every 5 years for the central government. The President of India is the head of the state and the Prime Minister is the head of the union govt.
President of India - The President elected by the electoral college consisting of members of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, the two houses of Parliament and the legislative assemblies of the states. His tenure is five years.
Vice-President – Vice-President is elected by the members of the two houses of Parliament. The system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote is involved. His tenure is five years.
Council of Ministers – They are Cabinet Ministers, Ministers of States and Deputy Ministers. They are involved in the decision making process and operate under the Prime Minister.
Parliament – The Parliament consists of the President, the Rajya Sabha or the upper house and the Lok Sabha or the lower house.
Rajya Sabha – It is the upper house of the Indian Parliament and consists of up to 250 members.
Lok Sabha – It is the lower house of the Indian Parliament and consists of 545 members. In the central govt. elections, candidates are chosen for this house.
Political Parties – There are many regional as well as national political parties that decide the fate of the govt. coupled with the votes that have been received by them through voting population of the country. The main national parties are the Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party(BJP), Janata Dal(JD), Communist Party of India(CPI) and Communist Party of India (Marxist)(CPI M) while the regional parties include the parties such as Telugu Desam in Andhra Pradesh, Asom Gana Parishad in Assam, National Conference in Jammu and Kashmir, Muslim League in Kerala, Shiv Sena in Maharashtra and Akali Dal in Punjab etc.
Judical System – India has an independent judicial system and there is one Supreme Court in the Country with High Courts in the states.
Supreme Court – It is the apex court in the country. The Chief Justice of India along with 25 more judges for the Supreme Court are appointed by the President of India.
High Courts – There are 18 High Courts in the country. The Chief Justice of a High Court is appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the Governor of the state.