Prior to independence, India was dependent on the skills and expertise of different nations in the field of science and technology. Now, in the past five decades, much of the expertise and infrastructural development we see has been done with minimal support of other nations. From small to large scale industries have been setup that covers a range of utilities, goods and services.
India has a history of achievements in the fields of mathematics, logic, astronomy and medicine since time immemorial as it is one of the oldest civilizations of the world. India has seen a remarkable progress in 1970 when the wheat production increased manifold as a result of the technological green revolution. A number of research laboratories have been opened and IITs have been started in the field of higher technical education. Major growth in formation of industries like the agricultural to iron and steel has been undertaken. The country is now self-reliant and self-sufficient in milk and food grains production. Significant achievements are being made daily and the government is doing every effort to make science and technology an integral part of the socio-economic development of the country.
If you see India in the areas of computers and technology, the progress has been quite impressive. India is destined to become the IT superpower of the world. Indian IT professionals are reputed the world over. India has developed a parallel super computer named, "Param".
Science and technology is used into the mainstream of economic planning in the sectors of agriculture, industry and services. The govt. of India supports and funds all the major initiatives for the promotion of science and technology.
India's nuclear energy program envisages use for peaceful purposes such as power generation, agriculture, medicine, industry and research among other areas. Many nuclear reactors are functioning currently and there are many more that are planned. India is one of the top-ranking countries in the field of missile launch technology.
Under the leadership of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai, India set up the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). ISRO is responsible for research, development and operation of space systems. Series of satellites have been launched that provides vital information in the fields of telecommunications, television, disaster warning and meteorology etc. From Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) series to Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle (ASLV) and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), India has come a long way in space research. India has developed its own remote sensing satellite, the only by a third-world country. Chandrayan- I, India's first unmanned mission to moon has been launched successfully on 22 October 2008.
India is also making progress in the fields of biotechnology and ocean development.
Many initiatives have been taken by the govt. including development of techniques for gene mapping, conservation of biodiversity and research, special biotechnology programs for helping the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and development in the area of plantation crops.
National Institute of Ocean Technology has been set up for the research and development of ocean technologies, of the coastal-belts and islands. Surveys and exploration efforts are being carried out for the assessment in seabed topography and concentration of minerals.
The country has many learning academies like the Indian Academy of Sciences that has been founded in 1934 in Bangalore, the National Academy of Sciences in Allahabad founded in 1930 and the Indian National Science Academy founded in 1935 in New Delhi.