The figures obtained from the recent surveys show that India represents about 17.31% of the world's total population. This indicates that out of every six people that live on earth one is an Indian. India is the second most populous country in the world after China and is expected in the year 2050, it will surpass China and India will become the most populous country of the world. The high population growth in India results in increasingly impoverished and sub-standard conditions for growing segments of the population. The prediction is that with the continued increase in population growth rate of 1.58%, India will lead the world with 1.53 billion people simply by the end of 2030.
According to the Census of India, the data for the year 2001 was as follows: total population of the country is 1,028,737,436 out of which 532,223,090 are males and 496,514,346 females. The birth rate is calculated on the basis of the number of children born per every 1,000 births in a year. As per the last survey on 2009, this rate was 22.22. Death rate measured in the same manner was 6.6 per 1000 population.
[caption id="attachment_550" align="alignnone" width="490" caption="Eclipse in Varanasi - 22Jul09"][/caption]
2008 survey shows fertility rate in India to be 2.72 children born to each woman. Infant mortality rate is also a very important statistics in measuring a country progress in the real sense of the term. And it is 30.15 deaths per 1,000 live births as per 2009 estimation. Unfortunately, India has the largest illiterate population in the world. The survey of 2001 shows the literacy rate of Indian population to be 65.38%. Male literacy rate proportion is 75.96% and female literacy rate is 54.28%. A survey of the states shows that Kerala has the highest literacy rate, which is 90.86%. Mizoram occupies the second position with 88.80% literacy rate. And the third position is occupied by the Lakshadweep islands with a figure of 86.66% literacy.
The state with highest population was Uttar Pradesh with 166,197,921 and the state having lowest population was Sikkim with 540,851.
The Union Territory with highest population was Delhi with 13,850,507 and the Union Territory with lowest population was Lakshadweep with 60,650.
The district with highest population was Medinipur (West Bengal) with 9,610,788 and the district with lowest population was Yanam (Pondicherry) with 31,394.
Population Density Population Density (PD) Persons/Sq. Km Highest PD (State) West Bengal 903 Lowest PD (State) Arunachal Pradesh 13 Highest PD (UT) Delhi 9,340 Lowest PD (UT) Andaman & Nicobar Islands 43 Highest PD (Dis.) North East (Delhi) 29,468 Lowest PD (Dis.) Lahul & Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) 2 PD = Population Density Dis. = District
The following is the rate of increase in Indian population: Per Year - 1, 55, 31,000 Per Month - 12, 73,033 Per Day - 42,434 Per Hour - 1,768 Per Minute - 29.